Category Archives: Offshore Assets and Accounts Disclosure

Giving is good! Giving is Subject to Federal Taxation

By Coleman Jackson, Attorney and Certified Public Accountant
June 10, 2019

Giving is good!  Giving is Subject to Federal Taxation

The Holy Bible at 1 Timothy 6:17 says that God gives to us richly all things….  It is a blessing to be able to give.  Giving is an expression of gratitude and love.  It is good to give.  Every relationship should be based on the desire to give.  It is more blessed to give than to receive.

Giving in the United States creates tax obligations on the giver.  Internal Revenue Code Section 2503 defines “taxable gifts” as the “total amount of gifts made during the calendar year, less deductions provided in subchapter C (section 2522 and following).”  The federal gift tax rules applies to gifts of present interest to a donee as oppose to transfers of future interest by the donor to the donee.  Under United States federal tax laws, the donor (giver) is taxed on the fair market value of the gift.  The recipient of the gift or donee is not taxed on the gift.  But!   Special tax reporting rules imposes on the donee a duty to disclose to the IRS certain large gifts from foreign nationals.

 

Giving in the United States creates tax obligations on the giver

 

The total annual valuation of gifts given by a donor is a tally of all gifts given by the donor for the calendar year.  Such gifts are reported annually on Form 709, United States Gift (and Generation-Skipping Transfer) Tax ReturnForm 709, United States Gift (and Generation-Skipping Transfer) Tax Return is due on April 15th of the year following the year of the gift.  For example if Jose Giver gives the following gifts in 2019:

  • Stocks and bonds to Jeremiah Recipient worth $40,000 fair market value;
  • Wires $250,000 to the foreign bank account of Jennifer Recipient ; and
  • Gives $4,000 to his niece, Carolyn Recipient under 21 years of age at the date of the gift.

 

Form 709 United States Gift

Jose Giver must tally the three gifts to all recipients made in 2019 and report the gifts on April 15th 2020 on Form 709, United States Gift (and Generation-Skipping Transfer) Tax Return.  The total amount of gifts for 2019 is $294,000. Internal Revenue Code Section 2503 provides an annual exclusion for gifts of present interests made to any person by a donor.  In 2018 the annual exclusion amount is $15,000 and pursuant to IRC Sec. 2523 the annual exclusion is $155,000 on gifts to spouses who are not U.S. Citizens.  For gifts given in 2019 the annual exclusion amount remains $15,000, but the annual exclusion for gifts to spouses who are not U.S. Citizens decreases to $152,000 for gift made in 2019.  Note that the annual exclusion amount is indexed to the inflation rate; therefore, it could change from year to year.

 

Form 114, Report of Foreign Bank and Financial Accounts

Other federal laws, including other tax reporting and disclosure rules could be implicated by the facts described in the above hypothetical.  For example, Jeremiah Recipient may have to report gains & losses realized on the stocks and bonds.  The $250,000 wired to Jennifer Recipient’s foreign bank account could possibly create reporting requirements under the Bank Secrecy Act which requires that U.S. persons; which includes U.S. citizens, resident aliens, trusts, estates, and domestic entities to file Form 114, Report of Foreign Bank and Financial Accounts with the Financial Crimes Network on April 15th 2020 if the foreign account balance is $10,000 or more at any time during the calendar year.  Further the $4,000 to his under aged niece implicates the Generation- Skipping Transfer tax rules. That applies when gifts skip a generation.   Giving is good!  Giving is subject to federal taxation.

This law blog is written by the Taxation | Litigation | Immigration Law Firm of Coleman Jackson, P.C. for educational purposes; it does not create an attorney-client relationship between this law firm and its reader.  You should consult with legal counsel in your geographical area with respect to any legal issues impacting you, your family or business.

Coleman Jackson, P.C. | Taxation, Litigation, Immigration Law Firm | English (214) 599-0431 | Spanish (214) 599-0432.

 

 

 

Statement of Specified Foreign Financial Assets

By:  Coleman Jackson, Attorney, Certified Public Accountant
May 06, 2019

Statement of Specified Foreign Financial Assets

 

Statement of Specified Foreign Financial Assets is Department of Treasury (internal Revenue Service’s Form 8938. Form 8938 is filed with the taxpayers’ annual tax return.   Internal Revenue Code Sec. 6038D mandates that specified individuals, who include U.S. citizens, resident aliens, and certain non-resident aliens that have an interest in specified foreign financial assets and meet the reporting threshold must annually report those specified foreign assets using Form 8938.  The federal tax law that mandates these reporting requirements was enacted by the U.S. Congress and signed into law by President Obama in 2010.  The law is entitled the Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act (FATCA).  The law’s stated purpose is to combat tax evasion by U.S. taxpayers using foreign bank accounts and assets.  This law is separate and distinct from the better known Bank Secrecy act enforced by the Financial Crimes Network (FinCen) mandating foreign accounts disclosures under the FBAR requirements.  We have discussed the FBAR requirements in prior blogs on a number of occasions.  We will not repeat those discussions here.   Interested readers should look up our prior blogs for discussions regarding the FBAR and the penalties associated with violation of the FBAR reporting requirements.  You can read all of our blogs at http://www.cjacksonlaw.com/blog/.

 

Form 8938

 

For now, let’s return to our discussion of FATCA and Form 8938.  Specified individuals with foreign assets meeting a certain reporting threshold must report their foreign financial assets to the Internal Revenue Service annually using Form 8938.   The term, “Foreign Financial Assets” under FATCA is defined broader than mere foreign deposit and custodian accounts; FATCA applies also to “Other Foreign Assets”, which could be any property, including virtual property interest of   Specified Individuals.  For example, the term other foreign asset could apply to foreign land, foreign buildings & equipment, foreign business interest, such as ownership interest in a foreign partnership, corporation, trust, or estate if the reporting threshold is met for the tax period.  Further, other foreign assets also could apply to Specified Individuals’ interest in foreign stocks, bonds, debentures, virtual currency and, practically speaking, wealth or value formulated in any other form and composition if the reporting threshold is met for the tax period.  The point is this; the definition of the term ‘asset’ is interpreted broadly under FATCA.

annually reporting of FATCA and Form 8938

 

To summarize, specified individuals must annually report their interest in specified foreign financial assets using Form 8938 if the values of the assets are $50,000 on the last day of the tax year or $75,000 at anytime during the tax year (higher reporting threshold amounts apply to married individuals filing jointly and individuals living abroad).  Fair market value in U.S. dollars is used to compute the asset value pursuant to the IRS instructions for Form 8938.  Normal civil and criminal penalties under the Internal Revenue Code could apply when Specified Individuals who meet the FATCA reporting threshold fail to comply with FATCA requirements.

This law blog is written by the Taxation | Litigation | Immigration Law Firm of Coleman Jackson, P.C. for educational purposes; it does not create an attorney-client relationship between this law firm and its reader.  You should consult with legal counsel in your geographical area with respect to any legal issues impacting you, your family or business.

Coleman Jackson, P.C. | Taxation, Litigation, Immigration Law Firm | English (214) 599-0431 | Spanish (214) 599-0432.

Los tribunales federales aclaran el estándar para probar la violación intencional del contribuyente del informe de bancos extranjeros y cuentas financieras (FBAR)

Por: Coleman Jackson, Abogado y Contador Certificado Publico
Febrero 27, 2019

Los tribunales federales aclaran el estándar para probar la violación intencional del contribuyente del informe de bancos extranjeros y cuentas financieras (FBAR)

 

Ciudadanos de los Estados Unidos, residentes permanentes, y algunas otras personas que están clasificados bajo 31 U.S.C. Sec. 5311 y los reglamentos promulgados deben presentar anualmente a la Red de Delitos Financieros un Informe de Banco Extranjero, Formulario 114. Las personas estadounidenses cubiertas por la ley de divulgación deben presentar el informe cada año para cuentas bancarias en el extranjero que excedan los $10,000 en el año calendario anterior, ya sea una cuenta única o un conjunto de cuentas. Si se alcanza el umbral de $10,000 se activan los requisitos de informes FBAR.

 

 

El monto de la multa de FBAR depende de si la violación del contribuyente fue voluntaria o no. Que es la voluntad en el contexto FBAR? El consenso general desarrollado en los tribunales es que el término “voluntario” “denota aquello que es intencional, sabio o voluntario, a diferencia de lo accidental, y que se emplea para caracterizar una conducta marcada por un descuido sin importar si uno tiene o no el derecho a actuar.” Wehr v. Burroughs Corp., 619 F.2d 276, 281 (3d Cir. 1980). Un contribuyente ha violado voluntariamente el 31 de U.S.C. Sec. 5314 cuando a sabiendas o imprudentemente falla al presentar un FBAR. Una persona comete una violación imprudente del estatuto FBAR al participar en una conducta que viola una norma objetiva: acción que lleva un riesgo injustificadamente alto de daño que es conocido o tan obvio que debería ser conocido. El Tercer Circuito de la Corte de Apelaciones en Bedrosian v. U.S., 2018 (3rd Cir. 2018) que

Esta participación esta en línea con otros tribunales que han mencionado las sanciones civiles de FBAR, ver, por ejemplo, United States v. Williams, 489 F. App’x 655, 658 (4th Cir. 2012) así como nuestros casos anteriores que mencionan las sanciones civiles evaluadas por el IRS en virtud de las leyes fiscales, ver, por ejemplo, e.g., United States v. Carrigan, 31 F. #d 130, 134 (3d Cir. 1994).

En Kimble v. U.S., 2018 (Fed, Cl. 2018), la corte dictamino que el contribuyente descuido de manera imprudente su deber de informar las cuentas en el extranjero porqué no reviso sus declaraciones de impuestos para verificar su exactitud y falsamente represento en su declaración de impuestos que no tenía ninguna cuenta bancaria extranjera. Tenga en cuenta que el Anexo B del Formulario 1040 en la línea 7 (a)pregunta específicamente al contribuyente si tienen o no cuentas bancarias en el extranjero. El formato de la pregunta es “sí o no,” y si se responde “si,” conduce a una serie de consultas adicionales con respecto a las cuentas de bancos extranjeros.

Las penas civiles por una violación FBAR están codificadas en 31 U.S.C. Sec. 5321(a)(5).  La multa máxima por una violación no intencional es de $10,000 por incidente. La multa máxima por una violación intencional del estatuto FBAR es mayor de $100,000 o 50% del saldo en la cuenta extranjera no declarada en el momento de la violación.

Este blog de derecho está escrito por  La Firma de Abogados de Impuestos | Litigación  | Inmigración de Coleman Jackson, P.C. con fines educativos; Esto no crea relación de abogado-cliente entre esta firma de abogados y el lector. Usted debe consultar con un asesor legal en su área geográfica con respecto a todas las cuestiones legales que lo afectan a usted, su familia o negocio.

Coleman Jackson, P.C. | Firma de Abogados de Impuestos, Litigación e Inmigración |Ingles (214) 599-0431 | Español (214) 599-0432

Federal Courts Clarify Standard for Proving Taxpayer’s Willful Violation of Report of Foreign Bank and Financial Accounts (FBAR)

By:  Coleman Jackson, Attorney and Certified Public Accountant
February 13, 2019

Federal Courts Clarify Standard for Proving Taxpayer’s Willful Violation of Report of Foreign Bank and Financial Accounts (FBAR)

 

United States citizens, lawful permanent residence and certain other persons that are classified under 31 U.S.C. Sec. 5311 and promulgated Regulations must file with the Financial Crimes Network annually a Report of Foreign Bank Account, Form 114.  The U.S. persons covered under the disclosure law must file the report each year for foreign bank accounts exceeding $10,000 in the prior calendar year whether it is a single account or an aggregate of accounts.  If the $10,000 threshold is met, FBAR reporting requirements are triggered.

 

Form 114 FBAR reporting

 

The amount of the FBAR penalty depends upon whether the taxpayer’s violation was willful or non-willful. What is willfulness in the FBAR context?  The general consensus developed in the courts is that the term, ‘willful’ “denotes that which is intentional, or knowing, or voluntary, as distinguished from accidental, and that it is employed to characterize conduct marked by careless disregard whether or not one has the right so to act.”            Wehr v. Burroughs Corp., 619 F.2d 276, 281 (3d Cir. 1980).  A taxpayer has willfully violated 31 U.S.C. Sec. 5314 when they knowingly or recklessly fails to file a FBAR.  A person commits a reckless violation of the FBAR statute by engaging in conduct that violates an objective standard:  action entailing an unjustifiably high risk of harm that is either known or so obvious that it should be known.  The Third Circuit Court of Appeals in Bedrosian v. U.S., 2018 (3rd Cir. 2018) that

 

This holding is in line with other courts that have addressed civil FBAR penalties, see, e.g. United States v. Williams, 489 F. App’x 655, 658 (4th Cir. 2012) as well as our prior cases addressing civil penalties assessed by the IRS under the tax laws, see e.g., United States v. Carrigan, 31 F. #d 130, 134 (3d Cir. 1994). 

 

In Kimble v. U.S., 2018 (Fed, Cl. 2018), the court ruled that the taxpayer recklessly disregarded her duty to report foreign accounts because she failed to review her tax returns for accuracy and falsely represented in her tax return that she did not have any foreign bank accounts.  Note that Schedule B of Form 1040 at line 7(a) specifically asks taxpayer’s whether or not they have any foreign bank accounts. The question format is ‘yes or no’, and if it is answered ‘yes’, it leads to a series of additional inquiries with respect to the foreign bank accounts.

 

The civil penalties for a FBAR violation

 

The civil penalties for a FBAR violation are codified in 31 U.S.C. Sec. 5321(a)(5).  The maximum penalty for a non-willful violation is $10,000 per occurrence.  The maximum penalty for a willful violation of the FBAR statute is the greater of $100,000 or 50% of the balance in the unreported foreign account at the time of the violation.

 

This law blog is written by the Taxation | Litigation | Immigration Law Firm of Coleman Jackson, P.C. for educational purposes; it does not create an attorney-client relationship between this law firm and its reader.  You should consult with legal counsel in your geographical area with respect to any legal issues impacting you, your family or business.

Coleman Jackson, P.C. | Taxation, Litigation, Immigration Law Firm | English (214) 599-0431 | Spanish (214) 599-0432

Offshore Accounts? The Train Is Leaving the Station! IRS To End Offshore Voluntary Disclosure Program (OVDP) on September 28, 2018

By:  Coleman Jackson, Attorney and Certified Public Accountant
September 22, 2018

The IRS is closing down the Offshore Voluntary Disclosure Program on September 28, 2018.  This voluntary international tax compliance program was designed to help people, organizations and business entities hiding money, accounts and assets overseas to get current and come into compliance with U.S. tax laws voluntarily under a reduced civil penalty structure and leniency with respect to potential criminal prosecution.  This program that has been in effect since about 2009  and extended in 2012 and again in 2014 is ending in about 7 days.

Non-compliant taxpayers with offshore accounts and assets have seven days to request permission to enter into the Offshore Voluntary Disclosure Program.  Entry into the program begins with submission to the IRS Criminal Division a request for preliminary consideration for disclosure under the OVDP program.  If the prelim request is granted, the disclosure, review, approval and closing process takes about 12 to 18 months.  Taxpayers who may have committed criminal international tax evasion or are holding undisclosed offshore accounts risk being reported by their offshore banking or financial institution since these overseas institutions are required to either directly or indirectly report United States Citizens and/or Green Card Holders with accounts in their financial institutions to the Internal Revenue Service.

Once the OVDP expires on September 28, 2018, the IRS might implement a replacement program or some procedure or method for non- compliant taxpayers to come into international tax compliance, but as of yet, the IRS has not announced any offshore accounts leniency programs or procedures that will replace the expiring OVDP.  Word to the wise— apply for the OVDP before it expires on September 28, 2018.

This law blog is written by the Taxation | Litigation | Immigration Law Firm of Coleman Jackson, P.C. for educational purposes; it does not create an attorney-client relationship between this law firm and its reader.  You should consult with legal counsel in your geographical area with respect to any legal issues impacting you, your family or business.

Coleman Jackson, P.C. | Taxation, Litigation, Immigration Law Firm | English (214) 599-0431 | Spanish (214) 599-0432

IRS Terminara el Programa de Divulgación Voluntaria Offshore de 2014 en Septiembre 28,2018

Por: Coleman Jackson, Abogado, CPA
abril 20, 2018

IRS Terminara el Programa de Divulgación Voluntaria Offshore de 2014 en Septiembre 28,2018

Escuchó la nueva noticia? El Lunes Marzo 13,2018 el IRS anuncio que terminara el Programa de Divulgación Voluntaria Offshore en Septiembre 28,2018.

Es probable que ya es muy tarde para las personas que tomaron sus oportunidades y no han tomado los pasos para entrar en el Programa de Divulgación Voluntaria Offshore (OVDP, por sus iniciales en ingles). Practicantes por todo el país han encontrado retrasos extremos en lograr que los contribuyentes estén previamente autorizados en el OVDP 2014 por meses . Solicitudes de pre-autorización están tomando más de 6 meses estos días. Los representantes del  IRS han declarado que la unidad de pre-autorización del IRS tiene retrasos en el registro de incluso nuevas solicitudes de pre-autorización de OVDP. La unidad tiene por lo menos 9 a 10 meses de atrasos en solicitudes….por lo que nos dicen.

Contribuyentes que no han tomado ventaja del 2014 OVPD tienen que actuar rápidamente. Repito, es posible que ya sea muy tarde para actuar. El Tesoro de U.S.A. ha recibido información directa o indirecta de instituciones financieras extranjeras con respecto a personas de Estados Unidos con cuentas bancarias extranjeras desde hace aproximadamente dos años.  Ellos probablemente saben que personas de Estados Unidos tienen cuentes de banco extranjeras. La posibilidad de ser detectada con respecto a cuentas extranjeras bancarias es increíblemente alta.  De hecho, podría ser imposible esconderse de la detección; y, el posible enjuiciamiento federal de violaciones podría aumentar.

Los infractores de las reglas de FBAR al no informar puntualmente las cuentas bancarias extranjeras están sujetos a las multas civiles y al enjuiciamiento penal. Cuentas Bancarias Extranjeras son reportadas anualmente en Abril 15, llenando el Formulario 114 con el Financial Crimes Network. FBARs delincuentes ponen al contribuyente en peligro legal. También puede haber problemas con impuestos federales si el contribuyente ha declarado menos ingresos o declaraciones de impuestos federales sin presentar.  Fraudes de impuestos y FBARs delincuentes son crímenes serios que pueden resultar en años en prisión federal sobre convicción.

Este blog de derecho está escrito por  La Firma de Abogados de Impuestos | Litigación  | Inmigración de Coleman Jackson, P.C. con fines educativos; Esto no crea relación de abogado-cliente entre esta firma de abogados y el lector. Usted debe consultar con un asesor legal en su área geográfica con respecto a todas las cuestiones legales que lo afectan a usted, su familia o negocio.

Coleman Jackson, P.C. | Firma de Abogados de Impuestos, Litigación e Inmigración |Ingles (214) 599-0431 | Español (214) 599-0432

O IRS finalizará o Programa de Divulgação Voluntária no exterior de 2014 em 28 de setembro de 2018

Por:  Coleman Jackson, Advogado, CPA
10 de abril de 2018

O IRS finalizará o Programa de Divulgação Voluntária no exterior de 2014 em 28 de setembro de 2018

Voce ouviu as notícias! Na segunda-feira, 13 de março de 2018, o IRS anunciou que encerrará o Programa de Divulgação Voluntária no exterior em 28 de setembro de 2018.

É provável que já seja tarde demais para todas aquelas pessoas que estão se arriscando e ainda não deram passos para entrar no OVDP. Profissionais de todo o país tem sofrido meses de atraso para conseguir que os contribuintes sejam pré-liberados para o OVDP de 2014. Os pedidos de pré-liberação estão demorando mais de 6 meses nos dias de hoje. Os representantes do IRS afirmaram que a unidade de processamento de pré- liberação do IRS tem longos atrasos na contabilização de pedidos de pré- liberação do OVDP. A unidade tem cerca de 9 a 12 meses de acumulo em pedidos de pré-liberação … assim nos foi dito.

Os contribuintes que não aproveitaram o OVDP de 2014 devem agir rapidamente

Os contribuintes que não aproveitaram o OVDP de 2014 devem agir rapidamente. Repito, é possível que agora seja tarde demais para agir. O U.S. Treasury tem recebido, há cerca de dois anos, direta ou indiretamente, informações de instituições financeiras estrangeiras sobre pessoas nos EUA com contas bancárias no exterior. Eles provavelmente já sabem quais pessoas a possuem. As chances destas pessoas serem detectadas com participações em bancos estrangeiros podem ser extremamente altas. Na verdade, pode ser impossível se esconder da detecção; e, possivelmente aumentar o número de acusações federais aos infratores.

Os infratores das regras da FBAR, ao não relatar a tempo as contas bancárias no exterior, estão sujeitos a processos civis e processos criminais. Contas bancárias estrangeiras são relatadas anualmente em 15 de abril, preenchendo o formulário 114 com a Rede de Crimes Financeiros. FBARs delinquentes colocam os contribuintes em risco legal. Também pode haver questões de imposto de renda federal envolvidas se o contribuinte tiver subestimado sua renda ou declarações de impostos federais não preenchidas. Fraudes fiscais e FBARs delinqüentes são crimes graves que podem resultar em anos de condenação de infratores em presídios federais.

Este blog de advocacia é escrito pelo Tributação | Litígio | Escritorio de Lei de Imigração da Coleman Jackson, P.C. somente para fins educativos; não criando uma relação advogado-cliente entre este escritório de advocacia e seu leitor. Você deve consultar o departamento jurídico em sua área geográfica com relação a quaisquer questões legais que afetem você, sua família ou sua empresa.

Coleman Jackson, P.C. | Tributação | Litígio | Escritorio de Lei de Imigração | Inglês(214) 599-0431 | Espanhol (214) 599-0432