Category Archives: Breach of Contract

Strategies for Responding to Bid Protests in Government Contracting

By: Coleman Jackson, Attorney & CPA
October 20, 2021

Strategies for Responding to Bid Protests in Government Contracting

Suppose your company is an unsuccessful bidder for a government contract or has won an award, and an unsuccessful bidder is protesting your prize. In that case, it is essential to defend your rights vigorously. In the federal market, bid protests are an integral oversight mechanism, ensuring that procurement statutes and regulations carry out federal acquisitions policy goals. Or Suppose a company believes the federal government failed to comply with the terms of a solicitation (i.e. IFB, RFP, RFQ, etc.) or applicable laws or regulations in a procurement transaction. In such instances as these, the company (bidder) must follow strict rules or face losing the right to protest. What is a bid protest?  A bid protest is a legal challenge to the government’s actions during the procurement phase, including evaluating bids/proposals and the award of a government contract.  The how, when, and where of bid protests are controlled by various laws and regulations.

Bid protests can be brought in different forums and are subject to strict timelines that must be followed appropriately. Whether defending a protest as a successful awardee, or prosecuting a protest as a disappointed bidder, all government contractors must understand the bid protest process to defend their contract awards from protest successfully or vindicate their rights to full and open competition as a protester. First of all, let’s clear up some confusion and doubts about the bid protest process.

 

Bid Protest Overview

Bid Protest Overview

Bid protests are legal challenges brought by bidders against the way the Government has conducted a procurement transaction.

An interested party may protest to the agency, the Government Accountability Office (GAO), or the United States Court of Federal Claims (COFC).

Which venue is best to bring a bid protest will depend upon various facts. Primary considerations include the value of the procurement to your company, the cost of pursuing a protest in the particular venue, whether the protest would be timely in the venue (i.e. a protest that is untimely in the GAO may be timely in the COFC), and whether the protest will involve information that requires a protective order (i.e., competitive communication is limited to the attorneys, and not disclosed to the companies involved). In recent years, most bid protests are filed with the GAO, so in our blog, we will focus on the GAO bid protest process.

GAO has defined the basic standard of its review of a bid protest as follows:“ The evaluation of an offeror’s proposal is a matter within the agency’s discretion. A protester’s mere disagreement with the agency’s judgment in its determination of the relative merit of competing proposals does not establish that the evaluation was unreasonable. While we will not substitute our judgment for that of the agency, we will question the agency’s conclusions where they are inconsistent with the solicitation criteria and applicable procurement statutes and regulations, undocumented, or not reasonably based.”

 

How many days you have to file a protest will depend the basis for the protest to begin with

How many days you have to file a protest will depend the basis for the protest to begin with. In general, if a protest is based on an obvious problem with the solicitation documents, the protest must be filed before the date the bid or proposal must be submitted. The purpose of this rule is to prevent a contractor from sitting on their rights to challenge what they believe to be an unfair solicitation, rolling the dice to see if they win, and then, if unsuccessful, filing a protest.

The time requirements for other protests, such as a challenge to the government’s decision to award the project to another company, will depend on the protest venue. At the GAO, a protest must be filed within ten days after the basis for the protest is known or should have been known. If a debriefing is requested, and the government is required to provide the debriefing (i.e., negotiated procurement under FAR Part 15), then the protest may be filed within ten days after the debriefing.

However, there are benefits to filing the protest even earlier because of automatic stay rule. An automatic stay (i.e., the government is required to withhold award and suspend contract performance) if the protest is filed with the GAO within five days of the offered mandatory debrief date or within ten days of contract award. A stay of performance can be very consequential since it can impact your remedy or ultimate relief. Without auto stay, the contract will continue to be performed, and there may not be any contract requirement left to award to you even if your protest is successful.

 

GAO attorney assigned to the protest

Once your protest is filed with the GAO, the agency has 30 days to provide the agency report (AR). The AR will include documents responsive to your protest arguments, including documents requested explicitly in your protest. The AR will consist of a statement by the contracting officer regarding the grounds of the protest and a legal memorandum from the agency’s lawyer. In addition, the AR will show what the agency did during the procurement process, which may bolster the initial protest or provide additional grounds for protest. Sometimes the agency refuses to provide certain requested documents, and the dispute has to be settled by the GAO attorney assigned to the protest.

The agency or an intervening awardee may request that all or part of your protest be dismissed. Such requests by the agency or intervenor are often based upon arguments of timeliness, standing, ripeness, and lack of prejudice. If a request for dismissal is filed, the protestor will have to file a response opposing the bid. If a dismissal request is submitted, it is often before the 30-day deadline for filing the AR.  This AR should be reviewed carefully and with skill because it often is a source of very helpful historical information pertaining to the government officials actions in award of government contracts under open and fair competition laws.

Once the AR is provided, the protestor has ten days to file comments responding to the agency’s arguments. If the protestor fails to address any ground of protest in its words, the GAO will deem the omitted environment as abandoned by the protestor.  The protestor must be meticulous when marshaling the facts; and the bid protestor must cogently and  thoroughly apply relevant government contracting legal principles when challenging government contract awards at the GAO or any other legal forum.

In addition to comments, as I mentioned in pasting before, a protestor often discovers additional grounds of protest upon reviewing the AR. Review the AR right away; because time is of the essence These different protest grounds have to be filed within ten days of receiving the AR (i.e., within ten days of knowing the basis for the protest ground). The agency will be required to file a supplemental AR in response, and the protestor will have to file additional comments. The process for supplemental protests is truncated (e.g., the GAO may require the supplemental AR to be filed within ten days instead of the 30 days allotted for the initial AR).

The agency may take corrective action at any point in the process. Remedial action by the agency is a recognition that they failed to comply with some part of the procurement process, and they are therefore correcting that mistake. The agency has broad discretion in corrective action, and it often includes a reevaluation of proposals or amendments to the solicitation. If the agency takes corrective action, the GAO will dismiss the portion of the protest related to the corrective action.

The GAO will issue its decision within 100 days of the filing of the protest. The GAO may deny or sustain the protest, in whole or part. If the protest is supported, the GAO will direct the agency to remedy the problem. If the GAO denies a protest, the protestor may refile the protest with the Court of Federal Claims.

 

Strategies for Responding to Bid Protests in Government Contracting

Understandably, clients often want to know the likelihood that their protest will be successful. However, the possibility of success or failure is fact-specific to each protest. Moreover, many successful protests are based upon the supplemental protest, which is not available to the protestor until the AR is filed. Statistically, however, the GAO has reported that the effectiveness rate of protests in the last several years is between 42% to 45%. That means nearly half of the protests filed result in the GAO sustaining the protest or the agency taking corrective action to remedy the mistakes cited in the protest.

You should promptly speak with an attorney and counselor if you believe the government has not abided by the terms of a solicitation or applicable government contracting laws and regulations. Timely guidance and evaluation of your potential bid protest are essential to meeting the stringent requirements for protesting government contract awards.  This is merely an overview of Strategies for Responding to Bid Protests in Government Contracting; knowledge and skill in government contract law, and proper evaluation of all the facts and circumstances are extremely important when pursuing legal strategies.

This law blog is written by the Taxation | Litigation | Immigration Law Firm of Coleman Jackson, P.C. for educational purposes; it does not create an attorney-client relationship between this law firm and its reader.  You should consult with legal counsel in your geographical area with respect to any legal issues impacting you, your family or business.

Coleman Jackson, P.C. | Taxation, Litigation, Immigration Law Firm | English (214) 599-0431 | Spanish (214) 599-0432 | Portuguese (214) 272-3100

A GOVERNMENT CONTRACTS LAWYER’S OVERVIEW OF BID PROTEST

By:  Coleman Jackson, Attorney & CPA
March 12, 2021

What is a bid protest in Government Contract

What is a bid protest?

A bid protest is a challenge to the award or proposed award of a contract for the procurement of goods and services or a challenge to the terms of a solicitation for such a contract.

What kinds of bid protests can be filed at GAO?

Protests may be filed against procurement actions by federal government agencies.

What kinds of protests cannot be filed at GAO?

Protests may not be filed against procurement actions by non federal government agencies, such as state, local, or foreign governments, or actions by certain exempted federal agencies, such as the Postal Service. For more information, see Bid Protest Regulations (4 C.F.R. § 21.5) and Bid Protests at GAO: A Descriptive Guide.

Who can file a bid protest at GAO?

Only “interested parties” may file protests. In the case of a solicitation challenge, an interested party is generally a potential bidder for the contract. In the case of a contract award challenge, an interested party is generally an actual bidder that did not win the contract. In addition, other factors, such as the bidder’s standing in the competition and the nature of the issues raised may affect whether it qualifies as an interested party. For more information, see Bid Protest Regulations (4 C.F.R. § 21.0(a)) and Bid Protests at GAO: A Descriptive Guide.

When must a protest be filed?

In general, a protest challenging the terms of a solicitation must be filed before the time for receipt of initial proposals. A protest challenging the award of a contract must be filed within 10 days of when a protester knows or should have known of the basis of the protest (a special case applies where, under certain circumstances, the protester receives a required debriefing). Please be aware that the regulations regarding the timely filing of protests depend on all facts and circumstances of each case and are strictly enforced. For more information, see Protest Regulations (4 C.F.R. § 21.2) and Bid Protests at GAO: A Descriptive Guide.

How is time calculated for filing deadlines?

“Days,” under GAO’s regulations, means “calendar days.” In the event a deadline falls on a weekend, federal holiday, or other day when GAO is closed, the deadline is extended to the next business day. For more information, see Bid Protest Regulations (4 C.F.R. § 21.0(e)) and Bid Protests at GAO: A Descriptive Guide.

I was awarded a contract and was told that the award has been protested – what must I do, and what am I allowed to do?

Parties that have been awarded a contract are permitted to participate in a protest as an intervenor. They are not required to do so, however, as it is the agency’s responsibility to respond to the protest and defend the award of the contract.

Are employee unions or representatives allowed to file protests or participate as intervenors?

Government employees and their representatives may participate as protesters and intervenors in protests involving competitions conducted under Office of Management and Budget Circular A-76. For more information, see Bid Protest Regulations (4 C.F.R. § 21.0(a)(2), (button) (2)) and Bid Protests at GAO: A Descriptive Guide.

Do I need an attorney to file a protest or participate as an intervenor?

No. Parties may file a protest or participate as an intervenor without being represented by an attorney. However, only attorneys are permitted to have access to material subject to a protective order.  Bid protest rules, procedures and practices are governed by the rule of law(The Federal Acquisition Regulations (FAR) for federal contracts); therefore, an understanding of relevant statutes, regulations and case law would be extremely helpful for framing and presenting a credible bid protest.

 

Federal Bid Protest Jurisdiction and Filing Deadlines

 Federal Bid Protest Jurisdiction and Filing Deadlines:

This reference lays out the filing deadlines, jurisdictional requirements, stay rules, and appeal processes for each place a bid protest can be filed: the Government Accountability Office,the U.S. Court of Federal Claims, and the procuring agency.

The rules differ by type of procurement. Chart 1 lists the rules for protesting contracts awarded under FAR Parts 13, 14, and 15. Chart 2 lists the rules for protesting task and delivery orders issued under most IDIQ contracts. Chart 3 lists the special rules that apply to protests of task orders issued under the General Service Administration’s Federal Supply Schedule contracts.

GAO Procedures:

Over the years, GAO’s decisions on federal contract awards have created a uniform body of law applicable to the federal procurement process upon which the Congress, the courts, agencies, and the public all rely.

Automatic Stay?

For pre-award protests, the agency must suspend award of the contract once it receives notice from GAO that a protest has been filed. FAR 33.104(b).For post-award protests, the agency must suspend performance if it receives notice of the protest from GAO within 10 days after contract award or within 5 days after the debriefing date offered to the protester for requested and required debriefings under FAR 15.505 or 15.506, whichever is later.  FAR 33.104(c).  (Note: Debriefings are not “required” for procurements under FAR Part 13 (FAR 13.106-3(d)), or Part 14 (except 14.5 (two-step sealed bidding) FAR 14.503-1(g))).In DoD procurements, for debriefings requested and required under FAR 15.506(d), contracting officers must provide an opportunity for unsuccessful offer or to submit additional questions within 2 business days of receiving a debriefing. The agency then has 5 business days to respond in writing. See10 U.S.C. § 2305(b)(5). The 5-day filing period to trigger an automatic stay does not start until after the agency delivers the written responses. See31 U.S.C. § 3553(d)(4). 

 Jurisdictional Timelines

Jurisdictional Timelines:

  • A pre-award protest based on alleged improprieties in the RFP that are apparent prior to receipt of proposals must be filed prior to the time set for receipt of proposals. Improprieties subsequently incorporated into the solicitation must be protested by the next closing time for receipt of proposals following incorporation. See 4 C.F.R. § 21.2(a)(1). Where a basis for challenging the terms of a solicitation does not arise until after proposal submission, a protest is due 10 days after the basis of protest is known or should have been known. See 4 C.F.R. § 21.2(a).
  • An offer or excluded from the competitive range before award must request a debriefing in writing within 3 days after receipt of notice of exclusion to obtain a “required” debriefing. See FAR 15.505(a)(1). The offer or then must file its protest not later than 10 days after the date on which the debriefing is held. See 4 C.F.R. § 21.2(a)(2).
  • For competitions where a debriefing is requested and required, post-award protests must be filed not later than 10 days after the debriefing is held, but not before the offered debriefing date. See 4 C.F.R. § 21.2(a)(2), for DoD, 10 days run from when DoD answers timely “additional questions.”
  • For all other protests not covered above, the protester must file its protest within 10 days after the basis of protest is known or should have been known, whichever is earlier. See 4 C.F.R. § 21.2(a)(2).

Subject Matter Jurisdiction Limits:

  • Only an “interested party” may protest improprieties in an RFP or award or termination of a federal contract. See 4 C.F.R. § 21.1(a). An “interested party” is an actual or prospective offer or whose direct economic interest would be affected by the award of a contract or the failure to award a contract. See 4 C.F.R. § 21.0(a)(1).

Note: An alleged Procurement Integrity Act violation must be brought to the Agency’s attention within 14 days of discovery, or it cannot be raised in a GAO protest. See FAR 33.102(f); 41 U.S.C. § 2106. 

 Process for Appealing Unsuccessful Decision

Process for Appealing Unsuccessful Decision:

A Request for Reconsideration may be filed at GAO not later than 10 days after the basis for reconsideration is known or should have been known, whichever is earlier. See 4 C.F.R. § 21.14.

A protester may “appeal” a GAO decision to the Court of Federal Claims by filing suit alleging that the agency’s procurement was “arbitrary, capricious, an abuse of discretion, or otherwise not in accordance with the law” in violation of the Administrative Procedure Act, 5 U.S.C. § 706(2)(A). 28 U.S.C. § 1491. There is no strict timeline for filing such an “appeal.”

A contractor may also file suit in the Court of Federal Claims alleging that an Agency’s proposed or actual corrective action, even if recommended or approved by GAO, is arbitrary, capricious, an abuse of discretion, or otherwise not in accordance with law.

 

Readers interested in following our blogs on government contract law, such as, relevant federal, state and local public contract decisions should visit our website at www.cjacksonlaw.com where we post our most recent blogs.  Our blogs in government contracting covers relevant decisions issued by the GOA, case decisions issued by the Court of Federal Claims and various state court decisions on public contract law.  Readers can also subscribe to our taxation, government contract litigation and immigration law Legal Thoughts Podcast where ever they listen to their podcast.

This law blog is written by the Taxation | Litigation | Immigration Law Firm of Coleman Jackson, P.C. for educational purposes; it does not create an attorney-client relationship between this law firm and its reader.  You should consult with legal counsel in your geographical area with respect to any legal issues impacting you, your family or business.

Coleman Jackson, P.C. | Taxation, Litigation, Immigration Law Firm | English (214) 599-0431 | Spanish (214) 599-0432 | Portuguese (214) 272-3100

Some Things About Contracts While Sheltering from the Unknown Virus like Covid-19

By:  Coleman Jackson, Attorney & Counselor
April 29, 2020

Some Things About Contracts While Sheltering from the Unknown Virus like Covid-19

What is a Contract?  A contract is an enforceable promise under the law.  That means that if you agree to do something for consideration and the other party either performs or changes their position in any material way, the law will compel you to do what you promised to do or demand that you pay the performing party compensation of some kind.  Usually the compensation is going to tailor the party’s expectations at the time they agreed to do such-and-such.  In a nutshell, that is what the term contract means.

 

What about when Covid-19 says go home, stay there and I will let you know when you can come out again?

What about when Covid-19 says go home, stay there and I will let you know when you can come out again?  Contracts are based on expectations; or put another way, a contract is a bargained for outcome.  Sometimes parties insert a clause into their contracts that is called a ‘force majeure’ cause.  Don’t get lost in the foreign language… force majeure is French.  First thing you really need to know is that force majeure clauses in contracts are enforceable in Texas.  Texas will make the parties to contracts perform in accordance to what the force majeure clause says.  That is simply in keeping with the fundamental contract law in Texas; which is, consenting parties can pretty much agree to do or not do any lawful thing in the State of Texas.  So be careful about what you agree to do or not do in Texas.  What about enforcement of force majeure clauses in Texas:  first they are enforceable contract provisions; your contract must contain language that a court can construe as a force majeure event excusing your performance of your obligations under the contract.  Parties to contracts in Texas can define or describe situations, occurrences, or events that constitute a force majeure event and typically they are defined as some event or series of events that make it impossible to perform under the contract or impractical to perform under the contract.  But a mere difficulty in performance would not likely be reason for a party to fail to perform under the contract.  Parties to contracts in Texas must make all reasonable efforts to perform responsibly under their contracts.  What constitutes reasonable efforts depends upon the nature of the contract because the scope of a force majeure clause in a contract depends upon the benefit of the bargain the parties negotiated within the four corners of their contract.  Courts in Texas do not like to take the liberty of contract away from responsible contracting parties afforded to them by the Texas and United States Constitution.  So, it follows that if the parties did not bargain for force majeure, it is highly unlikely that Texas Courts will recognize an event or series of events out of its own clothe that would excuse or release parties of contracts without the possibility of paying damages.  In a nutshell, force majeure is a lawful bargained for excuse to not perform under the contract.

 

breach of contract

An unexcused failure to perform pursuant to the agreed upon bargain is called a breach of contract when a party’s failure to deliver what’s promised is material to the expectations of the parties from the start.  In a nutshell, breach of contract damages could be a reasonable option or perhaps even the only option for a party if it becomes impossible or impractical to perform obligations of contracts entered into before the Covid-19 Pandemic sent the global economy to the dog pound.

This law blog is written by the Taxation | Litigation | Immigration Law Firm of Coleman Jackson, P.C. for educational purposes; it does not create an attorney-client relationship between this law firm and its reader.  You should consult with legal counsel in your geographical area with respect to any legal issues impacting you, your family or business.

Coleman Jackson, P.C. | Taxation, Litigation, Immigration Law Firm | English (214) 599-0431 | Spanish (214) 599-0432

 

Foreigners and Persons Purchasing and Selling United States Real Property Interests to and from Foreigners Must Consider U.S. Tax Consequences

By:  Coleman Jackson, Attorney, CPA
October 05, 2016

Foreigners are subject to United States tax laws under certain circumstances.  Resident and nonresident aliens (foreigners) are taxed differently under U.S. tax laws.

Here are realities effecting buying and selling United States Real Property Interests to or from Foreigners:  Foreigners are subject to United States tax laws under certain circumstances.  Resident and nonresident aliens (foreigners) are taxed differently under U.S. tax laws.

Resident aliens (Green Card Holders and foreigners meeting the substantial presence test) are taxed in the United States, generally speaking, the same way United States citizens are taxed under 26 United States Code.  Resident’s are taxed on their worldwide income, from whatever source, the same as United States citizens regardless where they reside and regardless where the income is earned.  Resident foreigners use the same tax tables as U.S. citizens.

Nonresident foreigners (foreigners who do not meet the substantial presence test or Green Card) are taxed based on the source of their income and whether or not their income is effectively connected with a United States trade or business.  Nonresident foreigner’s income from sources within the U.S. is subject to U.S. income tax and must be separated into two pools as follows:

a) Income that is effectively connected with a trade or business in the United States, and
b) Income that is not effectively connected with a trade or business in the United States

Income in pool (a) is taxed at the same graduated tax rates as applied to U.S. citizens. Income in pool (b) is taxed at a flat thirty percent (30%) tax rate or lower tax treaty tax rate.

Special tax rules apply to nonresident foreigners purchasing or selling United States Real Property interest.  Gains and losses from the sale or exchange of United States real property interests are taxed as if the foreigner is engaged in a trade or business in the United States.

Moreover, special tax withholding rules under 26 U.S.C. (Internal Revenue Code) requires under certain circumstances for buyers buying United States Real property from a foreigner to withhold taxes unless certain exemptions are applicable.  United States real property interest is defined as real estate located inside the United States, and includes amongst other things, residential single family homes, multi-unit dwellings, commercial buildings and so forth.  It is extremely important to consult legal counsel concerning tax law implications; and other not so obvious legal hazards, when buying United States real property interest from a foreigner.  Your typical real estate agent or broker is not a lawyer and cannot lawfully advise parties in a real property transaction regarding tax implications and other legal jeopardy concerns associated with real property interest dispositions involving foreigners.

What exactly is the withholding requirement associated with buying United States real property interests from a foreigner?  Internal Revenue Code Sec. 1445 (a) imposes a duty on buyers to withhold income tax on dispositions of U.S. real property interests involving nonresident foreigners.   The law imposes legal liability on the buyer for the tax due on the transaction if the buyer fails to comply with IRC Sec. 1445 (a).

Any buyer or transferee purchasing or exchanging a United States real property interest with a nonresident foreigner before February 17, 2016 must withhold a tax equal to 10% of the amount realized on the disposition.  For U.S. real property interests purchased or exchanged with a nonresident foreigner after February 16, 2016, the rate of withholding is generally 15% unless the property is going to be used by the buyer as a residence and the amount realized does not exceed $1,000,000.  In that case, the withholding tax remains at 10%.  These withholding obligations are the responsibility of the buyer of U.S. real property interests from nonresident foreigners; which means, buyers are exposed to potential tax liability or jeopardy if they fail to withhold the required tax in the correct amount at the time of closing the real property transaction.  The withholding requirement is based on the gross amount realized; which means, real estate commissions are not subtracted in applying the correct withholding tax percentage.

This withholding provision potentially creates a genuine conflict of interest between a buyer and their realtor or broker.  Likewise a conflict of interest could likely exist between a nonresident foreigner selling  U.S. real property interests and their real estate agent or broker,  especially involving the exemptions availability and selection of buyers .  It is probably prudent for buyer and seller of real property interest involving nonresident foreigners to have their independent legal counsel separate and distinct from their respective real estate agents or brokers because tax laws are implicated with potential for substantial financial consequences could have impact on real estate selling decisions by buyers and sellers of U.S. real property interest involving nonresident foreigners. Also, nondiscrimination laws in sale and purchase of real estate in the United States could impact these transactions.

But as for the exemptions to the withholding requirement; the following are very broad generalizations concerning exemptions that could apply (depending on all the facts and circumstances) to the withholding requirements of IRC Sec. 1445:

The buyer is not required to withhold any amount under Sec. 1445 (a) if one or more of the following applies to the transaction:

  1. The nonresident foreigner supplies an affidavit testifying that they are not a foreign person;
  2. Private domestic corporation supplies an affidavit testifying that their interests in the corporation is not an United States real property interests;
  3. IRS issues a qualifying statement to buyer (or seller) satisfying the requirements set forth in IRC Sec. 871(b)(1) or 882(a)(1);
  4. The amount realized on the U.S. real property interests transaction does not exceed $300,000 and the buyer intends to use the real property as its residence; or
  5. A wash sale is involved pursuant to IRC Sec. 8997(h) (5).

These exemptions have been abbreviated and only state the basic nature of the statutory exemption.  As with any statute effected parties must consult the applicable Internal Revenue Code Section(s), Internal Revenue Regulation(s), Revenue Ruling(s), Tax Court Opinion(s) and decision(s) of other Courts having interpreted and established precedence regarding how and when these tax withholding exemptions might or might not apply to withholding of tax on dispositions of United States real property interests involving nonresident foreigners.  Anyone buying or selling U.S. real property interest to a nonresident foreigner should perform their due diligence prior to entering an earnest money contract or any other kind of contract of purchase.  Likewise foreigners should perform their due diligence regarding applicable tax laws and other U.S. laws before entering into U.S. real property interest transactions involving nonresident foreigners.  Unintended tax consequences could lurk behind every U.S. real property interest transaction involving nonresident foreigners as well as exposure to unintended consequences of other state and federal laws governing disposition of real property interest.

This law blog is written by the Taxation | Litigation | Immigration Law Firm of Coleman Jackson, P.C. for educational purposes; it does not create an attorney-client relationship between this law firm and its reader.  You should consult with legal counsel in your geographical area with respect to any legal issues impacting you, your family or business.

Coleman Jackson, P.C. | Taxation, Litigation, Immigration Law Firm | English (214) 599-0431 | Spanish (214) 599-0432

When Are Lost Profits Recoverable in a Texas Breach of Agreement Case?

By Coleman Jackson, Attorney & Counselor at Law
January 29, 2016

When Are Lost Profits Recoverable in a Texas Breach of Agreement Case?

Lost Profits in a Texas breach of agreement case cannot be speculative; nor does an aggrieved party in Texas have to prove lost profits by exacting calculations or precise mathematical calibrations.  In order to recover lost profits in a Texas breach of agreement case, Texas courts have repeatedly stated that an aggrieved party must bring forth sufficient competent evidence to give the trial jury the ability to determine the net amount of the lost profits with a reasonable degree of certainty.

Opinions and speculations by accountants, economists and others with respect to the amount of the lost profits are not sufficient.  Expert opinions in Texas lost profit cases require that opinions, estimations and determinations of lost profits be based on objective facts, verifiable data and mathematical principles from which the net amount of lost profits can be reasonably ascertained.

Juries weigh the testimony, documents and other evidence and give it the credibility they deem appropriate.  Therefore to the extent net profits are presented by competent, credible witnesses it improves the probability of an award of lost profits in a breach of agreement case.  Furthermore, competent, credible corroborating evidence is essential in breach of agreement cases where the aggrieved party is seeking lost profits.  Corroborating evidence is typically in the form of historical financial data which demonstrates past profitability; or futures contracts; such as, contracts that have already been executed which allows the computation of lost profits, or other credible hard evidence that the alleged lost profits are not merely speculations are absolutely necessary to prove lost profits in a Texas breach of agreement case.

Bottom line, when a Texas litigant is seeking lost profits in a breach of agreement case; they must not only plead lost profits, but also produce objective facts evidencing lost profits. 

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This law blog is written by the Taxation | Litigation | Immigration Law Firm of Coleman Jackson, P.C. for educational purposes; it does not create an attorney-client relationship between this law firm and its reader.  You should consult with legal counsel with respect to any specific contract issues impacting you, your family or business.

Coleman Jackson, P.C. | Taxation, Litigation, Immigration Law Firm | English (214) 599-0431 | Spanish (214) 599-0432